Model railroading (US) or Railway modelling (UK, Australia and Canada) is a hobby in which rail transport systems are modelled at a reduced scale, or ratio. The scale models include rail vehicles (locomotives, rolling stock, streetcars, etc.), tracks, signalling, and scenery (roads, buildings, vehicles, model figures, lights, and natural features such as streams, hills and canyons.)

The earliest forms of model railways are the 'carpet railways' which first appeared in the 1840s. "Electric trains" first appeared around the turn of the 20th century. But these early toys were crude likenesses of real trains. Model trains today are generally far more realistic than the toy trains of yesteryear. Today modellers all over the world create sophisticated model railway / railroad layouts, often recreating real locations and periods in history, to show off their "prototypically accurate" models.
 
Bachmann HO Swift 50' Billboard Mechanical Reefer,  Screw on Trucks,  Exc

Bachmann HO Swift 50' Billboard Mechanical Reefer, Screw on Trucks, Exc

$6.00
City Classics 501-4 ? Gas & Auto Repair ? HO Scale

City Classics 501-4 ? Gas & Auto Repair ? HO Scale

$2.81
MOTEL ROTATING ANIMATED SIGN BY MILLER ENGINEERING -WHOLE NEW DIMENSION! O OR HO

MOTEL ROTATING ANIMATED SIGN BY MILLER ENGINEERING -WHOLE NEW DIMENSION! O OR HO

$43.99
American Flyer HO Gilbert & Gilbert Passenger Car Bodies +Made for Tyco 1959 60

American Flyer HO Gilbert & Gilbert Passenger Car Bodies +Made for Tyco 1959 60

$59.95
1.8 mm Red LED's Pack of 100 L18RD-100

1.8 mm Red LED's Pack of 100 L18RD-100

$10.00
Train Miniature HO Souix City Dressed Beef Wood Reefer,  Upgraded,   Gd.

Train Miniature HO Souix City Dressed Beef Wood Reefer, Upgraded, Gd.

$11.00
50PCS Clear 3mm 1.5V 100mA Miniature Pre-Wired Grain of Wheat Bulbs Warm White

50PCS Clear 3mm 1.5V 100mA Miniature Pre-Wired Grain of Wheat Bulbs Warm White

$1.04
REPLACEMENT Cleaning Heads 8pce suit TOMIX Tomytec Track Cleaner N 1 160 6423

REPLACEMENT Cleaning Heads 8pce suit TOMIX Tomytec Track Cleaner N 1 160 6423

$21.00
Lionel Polar Express Remote Train Set -O-Gauge[Operating headlight](6-30218) HVI

Lionel Polar Express Remote Train Set -O-Gauge[Operating headlight](6-30218) HVI

$295.85
3mm Red Green 3 lead Bi-Color LED Black Housing Pack of10

3mm Red Green 3 lead Bi-Color LED Black Housing Pack of10

$8.75
Polly Scale # 414272 Dark Green A MIB

Polly Scale # 414272 Dark Green A MIB

$6.05
RIVAROSSI #6900 HO SCALE OLD TIMER PASSENGER SET

RIVAROSSI #6900 HO SCALE OLD TIMER PASSENGER SET

$99.99
Scented Smoke FIREPLACE For Lionel O O27 G HO Steam Diesel Engine Trains Caboose

Scented Smoke FIREPLACE For Lionel O O27 G HO Steam Diesel Engine Trains Caboose

$5.84
Pack of 25 Min. DPDT Toggle Switch On-Off-On M203-25

Pack of 25 Min. DPDT Toggle Switch On-Off-On M203-25

$22.00
American Flyer S Scale Large Lot of very Nice Pike Master Track

American Flyer S Scale Large Lot of very Nice Pike Master Track

$99.95
3mm Red Green Bi-Color 2 lead LED in Black Housing Pack of 10

3mm Red Green Bi-Color 2 lead LED in Black Housing Pack of 10

$8.75
Badger MODELflex Paint ? 16-197 SP SF Overland Light Gray

Badger MODELflex Paint ? 16-197 SP SF Overland Light Gray

$3.54
Badger MODELflex Paint ? 16-30 Sand

Badger MODELflex Paint ? 16-30 Sand

$3.54
Badger MODELflex Paint ? 16-195 BNSF Silver

Badger MODELflex Paint ? 16-195 BNSF Silver

$3.54
LIONEL Track Layout Book - 027

LIONEL Track Layout Book - 027

$4.92
Scales and gauges
 

The size of the engines depends on the scale being used and can vary from around 700 mm (28") tall for the largest ridable live steam scales such as 1:8, down to matchbox size for the smallest ones in Z-scale (1:220). A typical HO (1:87) engine is around 50 mm (2") tall, and 100 mm to 300 mm (4" to 12") in length. The six most popular scales used are: G scale, Gauge 1, O scale, H0 scale (in Britain, the similarly sized 00 is used), TT scale, and N scale (1:160), although there is growing interest in Z scale. H0 scale is the single most popular scale of model railroad. Popular narrow-gauge scales include HOn3 Scale and Nn3, which are the same scale as HO and N, except with a narrower spacing between the tracks (in these examples, a scale three feet instead of the 4'8.5" standard gauge).

The largest common scale is 1:8, with 1:4 sometimes used for park rides. G scale (Garden, 1:24 scale) is most popular for back yard modelling. It is easier to fit a G scale model into a garden landscape and still keep the scenery proportional to the size of the trains running through. [Gauge 1] and Gauge 3 are also popular for garden layouts. 0, H0 scale, and N scale are more often used indoors. Lionel trains in 0 scale (1:48 scale) are popular children's toys.

The words scale and gauge seem at first to be used interchangeably in model railways, but their meanings are different. Scale is the model's measurement as a proportion to the original, while gauge is the measurement between the two running rails of the track.

At first, model railways were not to scale. Manufacturers and hobbyists soon arrived at de facto standards for interchangeability, such as gauge, but trains were only a rough approximation to the real thing. See Normen Europäischer Modelleisenbahnen (NEM) and NMRA. Official scales for the various gauges were soon drawn up, but the scales were not at first at all rigidly followed, and were not necessarily correctly proportioned for the rail gauge chosen. O (zero) gauge trains, for instance, operate on track that is too widely spaced in the United States as the scale is accepted as 1:48 where as in Britain 0 gauge use a scale ratio of 43.5:1 or 7 mm/1 foot and the gauge is much near to correct. The British 00 standards operate on track that is significantly too narrow. (The 4 mm/1 foot scale on a 16.5 mm gauge corresponds to a track gauge of 4' 1 1/2", 7 inches under-sized). 16.5 mm gauge corresponds to 4'8.5" standard gauge when modelling in H0 (half zero) 3.5 mm/1 foot or 1:87. Most of the commercial scales also have standards that include wheel flanges that are too deep, wheel treads that are too wide, and rail tracks that are too large.

Later on, groups of modellers became dissatisfied with these inaccuracies, and developed finescale standards in which everything is correctly scaled. These are used by dedicated modellers but have not generally spread to mass-produced equipment in part because the inaccuracies and overscale properties of the commercial scales are necessary to ensure reliable operation in the hands of consumers as well as experts, and also to allow for shortcuts necessary for cost control. These finescale standards include the UK's P4, and the even finer S4, which use a set of track dimensions scaled from the prototype. This 4 mm:1ft modelling uses wheels 2 mm (or less) wide running on track with a gauge of 18.83 mm. Check-rail and wing-rail clearances are similarly accurate.

A compromise of P4 and 00 is 'EM' which uses a gauge of 18.2 mm with much more generous tolerances than P4 for check clearances. It gives a much better appearances than 00 though pointwork is not as close to reality as P4. It suits many people where time and improved appearance are both important.
 

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Thursday , September 29th , 2016
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